Chapter 15 discusses how to influence, empower, and deal with politics in the business world. Chapter 15 says that there are 9 generic influence tactics that can be used just about anywhere in business. With that said, David Kipins, a psychologist, states that through multiple studies he has discovered only 8 to truly be considered "successful influence tactics" (Kipins). Chapter 15 utilizes previous studies and projects conducted by David Kipins. The study from the 1980's involved employees responding to ways that successfully persuaded there bosses, coworkers, or subordinates to do what they wished of them. The study took place over a 13 year period, and eventually "yielded nine influence tactics" (Kreitner 438).
Kipins more recent study minimizes the older study, to state there are eight current tactics. Kipins states that his most recent study found "8 dimensions of influence: Assertiveness, Ingratiation, Rationality, Sanctions, Exchange, Upward Appeals, Blocking, and Coalitions" (Kipins 442).
There are only slight differences with those from his first study that is showcased in the text.
1. Rational Persuasion: trying to convince someone with reason, logic or facts
2. Inspirational Appeals: trying to build enthusiasm by appealing to others' emotions, ideals or values
3. Consultation: getting others to participate in planning, making decisions, and changes
4. Ingratiation: getting someone in a good mood prior to making a request
5. Personal Appeals: referring to friendship and loyalty when making a request
6. Exchange: making express or implied promises and trading favors
7. Coalition Tactics: getting others to support your effort to persuade someone
8. Pressure: demanding compliance or using intimidation threats
9. Legitimating Tactics: basing request on one's authority or right, organizational rules or policies, or express or implied support from superiors
These approaches are ranked in success in ascending order based on the study. These are memorable tactics to use when in the work field, and importance and value can not be underestimated.
Intraorganizational influence tactics: Explorations in getting one's way.
Kipnis, David; Schmidt, Stuart M.; Wilkinson, Ian
Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol 65(4), Aug 1980, 440-452
Kreitner, Robert. Organizational Behavior. 9th ed. Vol. 1. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2010.