Monday, April 26, 2010
Morris, Erica. "Organization Chart." PRWeek (U.S.); Apr2010, Vol. 13 Issue 4, p13-13, 1/2p. Business Source Complete
Kreitner, Robert. Organizational Behavior. 9th ed. Vol. 1. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2010.
In an article called “Five Steps to Effectively Managing Organizational Change”, there are additional ways an organization must follow to find successful change. First they recommend creating “acute awareness of how things are now and how this state of affairs falls short of accomplishing stated goals and objectives. “ Secondly, managers must cherish understanding that something must be done to change the current situation they are in. Thirdly, urgency for change is crucial in order to be accomplished. The fourth step is to “there needs to be a well-thought-out program to ensure the actual adoption of the changes in the way things are done” and rewarding those who perform accordingly. The last step is continuing to solicit feedback on the new ways established and urge further improvements through the employees job tasks.
"Five Steps to Effectively Managing Organizational Change." EzineArticles Submission - Submit Your Best Quality Original Articles For Massive Exposure, Ezine Publishers Get 25 Free Article Reprints. Web. 26 Apr. 2010.
Unfreezing is that stage that focuses on the motivation to change attitudes and behaviors to it management standards. Management can begin doing this by disconfirming the usefulness or appropriateness or employees' behaviors and attitudes.
Changing is an organizational change of any proportion that is undertaking to improve the process, procedure, product, service, or outcome of interest to management. In this process you must provide employees with new information, behavioral models, processes and procedures, equipment, technology, or ways of getting a job done.
Refreezing is the stage where employees are being helped to integrate changed behavior or attitudes into their work life. It is important to give the employees a chance to use their changed ways and once they do offering positive reinforcement is a large contributing factor to Lewin's three stage Change Model's success.
The main focus is on improvement, growth and problem solving.
An organizational change is a difficult experience. As posted by a student in her blog, change can be a difficult thing to adapt to; especially when individuals are so used to the same routine. It takes time for someone to get used to a change in the way something is run or organized. It’s difficult and not always pleasing to adjust. It is hard to catch up with the new way of work. This can all prove very disconcerting and sometimes downright depressing. If an individual becomes anxious about the new changes and misses the old customs, it can be emotionally challenging as well.
An article which is titled "The Check, Connect, and Expect Program: A Targeted, Tier 2 Intervention in the Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support Model" by Cheney, Douglas, speaks about the effects of a type of feedback loop for those going through an organizational change. This feedback is necessary when faced with changes and it helps in order to adapt to them. This correaltes with the model change because it helps to diagnose what to change and how to evaluate changes in order for success to take place.
Source: Cheney Douglas. "The Check, Connect, and Expect Program: A Targeted, Tier 2 Intervention in the Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support Model"
Because shareholders essentially own a small stake of the company, it is important to recognize their opinions. The price of their stock is dependent on upper managements ability to perform and if they are unimpressed, upper management would receive a less significant bonus.
It is my opinion that executive compensation is way out of control. In this recent recession we witnessed executives receive bonuses for "hard work" even though they ran the company into the ground. By giving shareholders a voice in compensation practices, I believe it will encourage management to earn their bonus rather than wait for them.
Sunday, April 25, 2010
In the article, "The Relationship Between Charismatic Leadership, Work Engagement, and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors," Babcock, et. al. study the relationship between charismatic leadership and employee perceptions. Their results suggested that there is a significant and positive relation between charismatic leadership and work engagement.
Charismatic, positive leaders can help pave the way for change by easing their employees into the idea. Great leaders can build trust within the workplace, thus possibly removing the antichange attitudes that may once have existed.
Source: Babcock-Roberson, Meredith Elaine, and Oriel J. Strickland. "The Relationship Between Charismatic Leadership, Work Engagement, and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors." Journal of Psychology 144.3 (2010): 313-326. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 26 Apr. 2010.
In the article, "Initial Attraction to Organizations: The influence of trait inferences," Slaughter et. al. study how organization personality perceptions are associated with an organization's characteristics. Research shows that the organization personality perceptions: Boy Scout, Innovativeness, Dominance, Thrift, and Style may determine an individual's attraction to firms that display the traits they are looking for. Furthermore, organizations can highlight these traits for future recruitment in the workplace.
Establishing an organizational mission statement or purpose separates the organization from others. Though all share a general structure, it is up to the organization to build upon that foundation to create something great.
Source: Slaughter, Jerel E., and Gary J. Greguras. "Initial Attraction to Organizations: The influence of trait inferences." International Journal of Selection & Assessment 17.1 (2009): 1-18. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 26 Apr. 2010.
The article, “Power and Trust in Global Virtual Teams,” by Panteli and Tucker explore the power balances and shifts within groups that internally ranged from high-trusting to low-trusting. Results showed that high-trusting teams shared the following: the members had similar goals in mind, the leaders prioritized the team’s success as their primary role, and the power did not disappear among members, but rather shifted throughout as the job progressed (Panteli and Tucker 2).
Trust, is therefore, necessary for organizational leaders, managers, and team members to be able to create, hone, and maintain in order to be successful and efficient within the workplace. Although it may be easily destroyed, trust is a vital component in how an organization can prosper.
Source: Panteli, Niki, and Robert Tucker. "Power and Trust in Global Virtual Teams." Communications of the ACM 52.12 (2009): 113-115. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 25 Apr. 2010.
- The chairman of DUPONT was very reactive toward the bad economic situation: he asked the managers to participate to a new way of management, due to the current crisis. Thus, the managers are aware of the company’s situation and of its will to face it.
- The company was not afraid of cost cutting, because it realized that it was for its own good.
- The immediate reactivity in reducing the costs is another strength for this company: it enables the company to act in the good way as fast as possible. The strength lies in the fact that the managers are aware of the situation and do not want to be blind; they know what will help their company to survive the crisis.
- The deadline of two or three months shows that the leaders want fast actions.
- The involvement of Holliday in the change management is so good that is becomes ‘contagious’: all the employees usually behave as their manager, and such a manager is a good way of developing change.
(1) Providing as much information as possible
(2) Inform the employees about the reasons/ rationale for the change.
(3) Conduct meetings to address the employees’ questions
(4) Providing employees to discuss how the proposed change might affect them.
In a way this reminded me of the case study we were doing in class last week. These are the four tasks that Roberta should do to be able to appease her workers—after finding out, of course, more information about the changes.
This particular subject was more discussed more in an article I found. According to the article, these where what the manager should do when change is about to occur in the workplace.
“* First, take internal measures including, i) attaining a good understanding of the change situation, 2) ensuring optimal involvement and 3) openness to feedback, and 4) remaining honest to the entire workforce.
* second, focus on mutual issues by using i) fair and honest communication in order to 2) motivate all parties involved, 3) nurture a climate of trust, 4) ensure agreement on the change and the path toward realizing it, and 5) instate a solid plan toward implementation.
* Finally, focus on operational strategies that facilitate the change process, such as i) providing training to optimize implementation of the change; 2) maintaining a climate of creativity to respond effectively to unfore seen challenges; 3) ensure optimal performance, including possible attraction of external consultants; 4) determine the formulation and review of several options (scenario planning) to possibly follow; 5) keep an eye on the budget; 6) remain friendly but alert on those who exit the organization; 7) establish leverage points to motivate workers toward better performance; and 8) maintain flexibility when sudden alterations in plans need to be made.” (Marques)
Source: Marques, J.. "Making the Best of the Inevitable: Change. " Journal of Global Business Issues 2.2 (2008): 33-42. ABI/INFORM Global, ProQuest. Web. 25 Apr. 2010.
Saturday, April 24, 2010
In the current highly fluid, characterized by numerous mergers, restructuring and innovation, the relationship of employees the company has changed. Since the 90s, the speech did more to consumers only limited to communication on products but has sought to convey an overall picture of the company. The reorientation of internal communication flows from this development.
Internal communication is a vehicle for mobilization, but the manager has been vital for the individual motivation of its staff, mainly because of its relationship with them daily
To successfully develop the involvement of employees through communication, we must first reflect on what creates motivation. An employee will be motivated if he knows why and to what he's working. We must therefore give meaning to what is requested by entering its contribution in a company project.
Western countries are marked by an individualistic culture, including United States, Australia and in Europe, England and France, among others. These countries have adopted several centuries of liberal ideas promoting individual initiative, and the success. These liberal ideas was supported by the Church, dominant in the West, which emphasizes the responsibility individual. The East, including China, Japan and India, is marked the collectivist culture, too, is rooted in history. For one found collective dominance of the teachings of Confucius and the major religions like Buddhism and Hinduism.
The individualistic culture allows people to raise outstanding resources so vast that they have no precedent in history. We found in their ranks, personalities who gave their name to illustrious institutions, John Davison Rockefeller, Matthew Vassar, Leland Stanford... Many brands have their origin directly to their founders: Henry Ford, J. Paul Getty, Richard W. Sears, Roebuck Alvah, Clarence
Birdseye, W. K. Kellogg, Philip Danforth Armour, W. R. Grace. Henry Ford is particularly interesting because it provides innovation, both technologically and socially. After Reading Emerson's essay entitled "Compensation", he doubled the salaries of workers, which allowed them to buy the Model T which he had by
also cut the price.
One result of American individualism is that the system of philanthropie United States is among the most innovative, the richest in ideas and the most exciting in the world. It gives meaning to the formulas: "Helping people help themselves" and "No a gift, but a boost ».
Such an organization enables individuals to know where he stands, what he has to do, to whom he is accountable but it is not without flaws. information are much more time to run and urgent decisions are taken at the last moment. more if the decision of the CEO or someone highly placed is not good, it will be applied.
The book discusses how stress can also be a positive factor, which I had never considered before.. Stress is the body's way of dealing with pressure and pushes people to pin point the worst cause of their stress and start seeking solutions for it. It helps them improve because change only comes when something forces it to occur.
"Organisational change can be a stressor, sometimes to an overwhelming extent, but it can also offer creative opportunities for dealing with the stress that accompanies it (McDermott 2002).
Workplace stress and personal stress are not mutually exclusive phenomena. Each has direct and indirect effects on the other, and, while ways to address stress in each environment differ, they can also overlap" (Hurley).
By recognizing this, people can start to deal with their stress through meditation, organizing their problems and choosing to address them. Just breathing deeply for a few moments has been found to have a calming effect on a person since more oxygen is taken into the body. This helps to clear a person's mind and make them mentally ready to take on whatever is next.
Hurley, Mary. "Managing stress in the workplace. (Cover story)." Nursing Management - UK 14.3 (2007): 16-18. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 24 Apr. 2010.
It's going to be short today, but nobody reads my posts, so I doubt anyone will even notice. The year is coming to a rapid conclusion, and we're just about ready to wrap up our fun-filled semester in this class. I'm kind of sad to see it go, to be perfectly honest. John is a good teacher who knows what he's talking about, and we've learned a lot about teamwork and organizational culture. The whole blogging system for doing homework (a system also utilized in his internet marketing class) was a really cool idea that made homework feel more communal with other classmates. In all, I had a good semester in this class. But enough of my nostalgic banter.
In doing the reading for this week, I came across something really important that feels like a great note to begin the fade to black. In chapter seventeen of the luminous tome, Organizational Behavior, by none other than the dynamic duo, Kreitner and Kinicki, there was something in chapter seventeen that really caught my eye. Of course, this was the Open System Perspective of Organizations.
An open system refers to an entity that constantly interacts with its environment in order to survive. It's not difficult to generalize with a topic like this. As human beings, for instance, we must interact with our environment in many ways, such as procuring food and going for long hikes on Mt. Tamalpais. But how does an organization adhere to the concept of an open system? In what ways does an organization such as a business lend itself to contextual environmental interaction? The answer is not quite as straightforward as you'd think, and this can be a very nuanced topic.
The book makes a good point when describing open systems. Every system in existence is partially closed and partially open, so the discussion about an open system is essentially taking a look at the nuanced parts of a system and coming to a conclusion about its openness. The book suggests looking at how great the role of the overall environment is in the functions of a system in order to make a determination.
But what does an open system look like?
If we go back to the 1950's and keep going backwards, business was not organized the way it is today. Businesses were mostly seen as a well-oiled machine that functioned off of a strict sense of discipline and had a tendency to be run like a military brigade. Fortunately for us in this day and age, most businesses are not run that way anymore. A different framework was needed to progress the organizational paradigm.
Essentially, there is a barrier between the organization and the outside environment as a whole. Inside this barrier are subsystems pertaining to each aspect of organizational functionality: goals and values, the technical aspects, psychosocial aspects, structural considerations, and the managerial processes of the company. In an open system, the barrier that protects these internal components of the organization needs to be a permeable membrane, capable of allowing inputs (money, materials, human capital, and information) into the organization freely. Equally important is the ability of the membrane to allow outputs (products, services, organizational growth, social benefits) to escape in order to fulfill their purpose, with the feedback from the outputs turning around and influencing the supply of necessary imports, starting the cycle over again.
In essence, an open organization is one that operates in the most logical fashion, with overlapping internal components, and a perforated outer shell that allows the free flow of necessary environmental components through the company. In this way, the company can move faster and make more money, due to the very nature of its design. The human body operates in a similar fashion. We have a semi-permeable membrane (our skin), which lets key environmental nutrients into our bodies (vitamins from the sun, moisture from the air). We also eat food, a necessary input, in order to function internally, and then export our outputs, which expend energy. So a company that takes a little lesson from biological processes can function at a much higher level than one that simply views its design as some kind of soulless cubicle farm with a rigid sense of 1950's-era discipline.
Friday, April 23, 2010
In a book exert from the online website, ChangingMinds.Org, it gave an overview of Lewin’s Change Model, however, it touched on some important points not mentioned in our book. One point Straker brings up is that people have a natural tendency to find context that they feel a sense of safety and control and that talking to people about the future doesn’t help to ‘unfreeze’ them. To ‘unfreeze,’ a push strategy should be implemented to initiate the change, and a pull strategy to motivate people to continue making the change. Some people are ‘change ready’ while others take longer to accept the need for change. In the transition or changing stage, time is essential because change is often a journey rather than a single step. A good leader should help to coach their followers so that everyone can follow through with the change. Initiating change can also be hard because it’s the 1st step. To move past this, a slow initiation of change or preparation will help to ease the uncertainty. Another problem is that often people purposely stay in the transitioning stage rather than reaching the desired change. People become comfortable with the temporary situation where they’re not held accountable for their actions, and replace real action with just talking about change. Instead of completely unfreezing, Straker writes that it’s ideal to be in an inbetween stage where freezing isn’t fully reached so that the next unfreezing will be easier. However, the problem with that is that people experience ‘change shock,’ where they perform ineffectively because they anticipate a new change. This website is helpful in realizing other points about the Lewin’s Change Model.
Straker, David. Lewin's Freeze Phase. 23 April 2010 (http://changingminds.org/disciplines/change_management/lewin_change/lewin_change.htm).
Recently, more people have become more stressed because of the recession. The father of the concept of stress, Hans Selye, stated that both positive and negative events can trigger an identical stress response that can be beneficial or harmful. He defined positive stress as eustress. He emphasizes that efforts need to be directed at managing stress, not at somehow escaping it altogether.
The article "Define Stress" re emphasizes this point of managing stress. It states that "Managing stress and symptoms of stress is important because stress and health are related to each other." That is why it is important to know what stress is and what your personal stressors are and how you can you manage them, which may be by seeking professional help.
"Define Stress." Manage Stress. 23 April 2010. http://www.aboutstressmanagement.com/stressrelief/stress-management/define-stress/define-stress.htm
Thursday, April 22, 2010
I directly related to this in how John asked his students what they thought of the syllabus, and what changes they would make. In doing this, the students felt like they were valued and respected. No matter how small your roll is, it feels good to be a part of something and to contribute. It also makes the students accountable for their actions when they mess up. Just like it’s easy for you to complain about a president which you didn’t vote for, it’s easy for students to hate a syllabus which was thrown at them. However, if the students write the syllabus, there is not much they can complain about.
I did some additional research on shareholder involvement and found that it is now the norm to involve the shareholders to a certain extend. The biggest factor however, is how large the share. Someone who owns .002% of Nike doesn’t have as much say in the direction of the company as Michael Jordan or Tiger Woods. However, there are meeting, conferences and polls that any shareholder can participate in in many companies.
Wednesday, April 21, 2010
The book describes decision making as, “part science and part art.” The science of decision making is the more important factor because it addresses the expected result whereas art is related to intuition and a person’s ethical perspective of the situation. However, it is important to include both aspects to the decision making process. By including both science and art to the equation, one can increase the likeliness of meeting their goal without compromising their integrity.
It seems that in today’s business world, many people focus on the science of decision making and forget about the art. Repeatedly we are reminded of situations in which ethics were ignored because they interfered with accomplishing the goal. Such high pressure to succeed in today’s world makes it more convenient to ignore morals, so it takes a stronger individual to avoid this temptation.
The affective component is feelings or emotions that a person will have in regards to a situation or object. This component can be expressed as positive, negative, or neutral if the situation does not influence any emotion. This is an important concept because nearly every situation evokes emotion to some degree.
The cognitive component refers to pre-existing beliefs a person holds regarding a situation. This component influences everybody and is a result of past experiences which have influenced an opinion on the subject. In society, we commonly witness the cognitive component as we see people conform into political and religious groups. This is an obstacle when working in teams because it is hard for people to look past their own beliefs, therefore making it more difficult to come to a consensus.
The behavioral component represents the actions that one will take in a given situation. In many ways, this component has the greatest influence on team moral because it is the most noticeable. Unlike the affective and cognitive components which are related to emotion, this component is visible and harder to disguise.
By breaking ones attitude down into these components, it becomes easier to analyze our impact on others. By acknowledging our positive features and working to change are negative ones, we can become more supportive and efficient when working in teams.
The reason this section caught my attention is because I have been doing a lot of research of what it takes to be an entrepreneur. What I have found is people have a more successful career working on something they are passionate about than when they are rewarded by extrinsic factors such as a large pay check. While trying to figure out my career path, I have made this concept the basis of how I choose.
Mentioned in the chapter is that employees are motivated more by appreciating and feeling apart of the process than by monetary rewards. This concept is important for managers to consider when hiring and supports the fact that they should not compromise. When hiring, it is important to make sure that the person’s core values and interests line up with the job that they are applying for.
The three threats to group effectiveness mentioned in this section are the Asch effect, groupthink, and social loafing. Out of these, I found the Asch effect to be most interesting. The Asch effect deals with perspective and is named after a psychologist who studied group dynamics. He conducted an experiment which people would have to match the length of one line with one of three others on a separate card. Because there was only one correct choice, the results should have been unanimous, but they weren’t. This is because Dr. Asch arranged to have one of the participants offer up incorrect information, and under pressure, other people followed.
I have witnessed this effect occur several times when working in a group, yet didn’t understand the context until now. What may appear to be consensus might actually be the Asch effect in disguise.
The first method mentioned is communication. It is important that team members be informed and able to share ideas. If communication is lacking, it is possible to de- value a teammate or slow down efficiency. Respect is absolutely necessary to protect communication so that all members of the group feel comfortable sharing their opinions.
Being supportive is another tactic in gaining trust. The chapter describes being supportive as being approachable, along with providing help, coaching, and encouragement. These actions build a strong foundation for communication and help to improve the dynamic of the team.
By relating these ideas mentioned in the chapter to previous experiences of working in a group, I came to the conclusion that they will in fact build trust amongst team members. In my experiences, communication has been both the success and downfall of the group. When the lines of communication are open, the entire team seems to work more efficiently, whereas when communication is failing, the quality of work deteriorates and motivation falls for those who feel they cannot get their point across.
Monday, April 19, 2010
Philip Selznick explains in his article titled American Sociological Review that trade unions, governments, business corporations, political parties, are all formal structures in the sense that they represent rationally ordered instruments for the achievement of stated goals. Philip mentions that through the goals businesses set, it is easier to facilitate the accomplishment of some agreed purpose through the allocation of functions and responsibilities. Goal setting and accomplishment is seen as a system of coordinated activities or forces of many persons. As illustrated by Philip having a mind set on goal accomplishment is vital for any business or structure to be effective.
Source: Selznick, Philip. "FOUNDATIONS OF THE THEORY OF ORGANIZATION." American Sociological Review 13.1 (1948): 25-35. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 19 Apr. 2010.
Sunday, April 18, 2010
However, some of the controversies with the matrix organization involve loyalty, confusion, and the use of the organization for today's society. Some opponents say that there are loyalty conflicts that have the workers unsure of the positions hierarchy. People may not be sure of who is the authority and who has certain leadership since all workers are specialized in their specific fields. Also, because the workers are specialized, confusion on what to do and how to distribute the information found may be unsure to those in the team. Since those who are not majored in certain aspects, they may not fully understand a concept or may understand the information differently. Lastly, opponents argue that the matrix organization may be outdated.
As one can see, they are ranked in diminishing order of use in the workplace. The first five are considered "soft tactics" because they are friendlier than the last four which are considered "hard tactics".
I have found that in real world situations, if someone really wants something they rarely start out with a “hard tactic”. They always start with kind reasoning and logic, and then if they don’t get their way, they will move down the list to harder tactics.
When you are the persuader and use your favorite tactic to try and get your way there is normally 3 influence outcomes
In the workplace, the only acceptable one is commitment, compliance and resistance will not sit well with your boss.
I found an article on careerbuilder.com which is titled “How to get your way at work”. This had a more condensed and simpler list of three which was comparable to Kipnis’ nine.
-have a plan
-ask for feedback
Honesty plays a big key in getting your way, if you’re a slimball and nobody trusts you, rarely will they do what you want.
This chapter also discussed that there were several challenges that one could come across when being innovative. These challenges included: finding an idea, developing a solution, funding, reproduction, reaching for customers, beating competitors, timing, and keeping older customers happy while trying to garner new ones through innovation.
The last aspect of innovation that the chapter discussed was what made innovation effective and grow. There was only one answer to that, which was management. Training the workers, having good leadership, and making sure that creativity was not stifled, were a just some of the things that were needed to perform effective innovation.
Seeing as this part of the chapter talked a bit about Apple and its innovation, I found a video online which showed how Apple’s products have evolved throughout the years and how they kept innovation alive. Since this was made a year ago, products such as the new iPhone and iPad were not shown yet.
Saturday, April 17, 2010
Anyways, I want to talk about office power today. While reading our incredibly fascinating book, I came across the part in chapter 15 about the bases of power. I remembered talking about this in-class. If Mr. Miyagi is involved, you bet your ass I'll remember it.
So there are 5 kinds of power bases: Reward, Coercive, Legitimate, Expert, and Referent. For this post, I'm going to use my imagination to paint a picture of what a manager adhering to each of these power styles would look like.
Reward power, according to the book, is one who "obtains compliance with promised or actual rewards." Let's take Mark, a manager slaving away at a mid-level cardboard box supplier (they exist, trust me). He has noticed that his numbers are down, and he needs to get people in gear to start earning more money. He doesn't want to lose the monthly sales numbers contest to the Lodi branch again. So he tells his employees that, in addition to him throwing a badass picnic (badass picnic? What?), he'll make sure that they will each receive a bonus as a reward if they win two monthly sales contests.
Coercive power is the kind of power wielded by assholes. As stated in the book, "obtaining compliance through threatened or actual punishment." Let's look at Howard, a short fat guy who just got promoted to a management position. Unfortunately for everyone working underneath him, he is a man filled with spite, and takes sadistic pleasure in punishing people. Someone yawned once during one of his meetings. They were never seen again. He gets people to work hard by constantly hovering punishments over their heads. One time, he saw one of his subordinates at a bar with a hot date. In a fit of jealousy, he fired him the following Monday. This guy is cold-blooded.
Legitimate power is a little more formal and clear-cut. It's simply respecting the chain of command. If a guy occupies the position of "manager," then he gets to "manage" you. It's pretty simple. Obviously, someone with legitimate power can turn into a douchy coercive or nice rewarding manager, but legitimate power seems to be almost more passive and in the middle. You have authority because of your title. Case in point, Ron, who works for Boring Industries, a company that makes springs for printer cartridges. He just got promoted to a management position, but he's still totally the same guy that he was before. He just has management authority now. People listen to him and complete tasks that he requests of them. He sees it as the same job he had before, and he only gets to manage because of what his job title says.
Expert power is the most badass kind of power. Mr. Miyagi falls into this category. He knows his shit, and that's why he's practically bursting with awesome. If someone commands respect simply by what they know and what skills they have, then they are simply better than everyone else. Let's consider the case of Paul, a manager who has been in his industry (the fake vomit manufacturing business) for fifteen years. He knows his industry and workers inside and out, and he studies Krav Maga in his spare time (Krav Maga is the martial arts used by Israeli special forces). On top of that, he is a professional base jumper, expert chef, and has a respectable credit score. He commands respect by simply being an expert in the things he does. When he talks, people tend to listen because there is a good chance this man knows what he is talking about. Also, Krav Maga.
Referent power is, to put it lightly, the kind of power wielded by people who are just good with other people. It's all about charisma and raw appeal. Let us consider Gunther, a new manager who didn't go to college, doesn't have any particularly good skills, doesn't really focus on rewarding or punishing people, and doesn't know Krav Maga. But people LOVE him. Why? He gets people. Never underestimate this power. Upper management is populated almost entirely by human beings, and you can be the most qualified and knowledgeable person out there, but if you don't get people, forget about it. Gunther just gets people, and that's why he got promoted and you didn't.
Friday, April 16, 2010
In the article “Workplace Etiquette: The Political Savvy Individual” it addresses that in order to successful in today’s evolving workplace, you need talent, hard work, good job performance, a share of good breaks as well as political savvy. “Political savvy means ethically using office politics to your advantage.” People must think of this as to practice sensible and ethical office politics. This article addresses that office politics were played by supervisors and managers attempting to climb the ladder of success. Office politics are omnipresent, which means they are everywhere all the time. The last thing that this article stressed was if someone was “to ignore office politics is to ignore those underlying forces that account for the success between equally talented people.”
"Workplace Etiquette: The Political Savvy Individual (identify the Characteristics of Successful Teams in a Workplace with Etiquette)." Famous Entrepreneurs, Small Business, Young, Successful, Women, Toronto Resources. Web. 17 Apr. 2010.
Wednesday, April 14, 2010
It really all depends on the issue being decided and on the group that is being included in the decision. For example, in my opinion, it is better to make a decision that affects your health independently becuase in the end, it is you/your body that is being effected, not everyone else's. However, if you are trying to decide how to tell somebody something that is hard to hear, I find it best to ask a group of people (usually peers) on how and when best to approach the matter so as to cause as little harm as possible. Some people share experience or insight that is very valuable that you would not get out of them unless you asked about a specific situation, and these are the time when I think group decisions are best. After all, I am only one person and I have only experienced the events in my own life, so it is not easy for me to look at things for certain other perspectives. The complication with group decision-maiking though is that it can very easily start fights when disagreement arises and it can also confuse people by offering too many alternative options. I personally like to keep things as simple as possible and avoid conflict at all costs, however I generally like to get several people's inputs before making a decision because I can be very indecisive. This is why I think that there is no right answer to the question stated above, because it is all situational.
While many managers probably consider themselves to be "performance managers", it is often less likely the case in reality. It is hard for all of these tasks to be placed on one person, let alone a person who is in a position of athority, but it is even harder for a person to accomplish all of these things well. What it takes to be a good manager differs from person to person, but in my own personal definition/criteria, I would say that a good manager is a person who genuinely cares and is not willing to sacrifice morals for ratings or money. People like this are hard to come by, and usually when you do come across them, they are not in positions of leadership, management, or any kind of power. By reaching a goal and helping people get there, you earn respect and gain wisdom along the way that could only have been obtained through experience. Trying to dictates and belittle employees makes them unwilling, unmotivated, and unhappy. If people feel like they can trust and depend on the person who they report to, they are much more likely to perform well at work, which in turn will make the company better. So, it is exptremely important to build that rapport with your employees so that you are not a "good manager" according to a definition in a book, but rather an actual good manager.
Tuesday, April 13, 2010
As the article, "No Ideas, You're Not Alone" says, "Thomas Edison didn't work alone. The invention of the light bulb was the work of an entire lab team; it was one of his assistants who came up with the idea of screwing the bulbs into sockets instead of just mounting them straight up. Same goes for J.R.R. Tolkien, who wrote his Lord of the Rings novels at the same time C. S. Lewis was creating The Chronicles of Narnia. Both authors generated ideas for their stories in a weekly literary group of Oxford scholars called the Inklings. Charles Darwin's work on evolution wasn't dreamed up in a vacuum, either: While doing his research, he was corresponding with dozens of scientists across Europe." In other words, our traditional idea of genius is not well grounded. Oftentimes, companies still think that people can single-handedly invent something and solve a problem. Well, they can't. They may come up with a good idea now and then, but the end product of this idea is the result of other's input and continuous trial and error. This is why some companies are starting to let their employees have more freedom in organizing their teams. Sometimes, they know best how to do their jobs and without a manager imposing a structure upon them, they are able to use their knowledge to improve their system. When there is good base organization within a firm, the whole company profits and innovation is able to occur.
Ewers, Justin, and E. J. "No Ideas? You're Not Alone." U.S. News & World Report 142.22 (2007): 50-52. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 13 Apr. 2010.
Monday, April 12, 2010
On the website, Matrix Organization and project management by Visitask.com, matrix structures are best for project oriented companies, such as construction companies. Information sharing is a required part of the system because it allows for flow of communication. A project manager is responsible for the completion of the project; however, sometimes other people are needed to assist with the job. The functional part of the company is responsible for functional and technical elements required to operate. The functional manager’s job is to ensure that the department is unified and that all information is being exchanged between departments and projects. Matrix structures are used to create cooperation between departments through shared responsibilities. It also helps to reduce costs and conflicts, create a better balance between time and performance, and distribution of authority and stress. This website helped me to gain a more in-depth insight into the advantages and purposes of the matrix structure. In my opinion, this is a very effective structure when a company is working to achieve better team work amongst its employees and to obtain more effective project results.
Matrix Organization and project management. 12 April 2010 (http://www.visitask.com/matrix-organization.asp).
The article, "Liability of Certification Service Providers Towards Relying Parties and the Need for a Clear System to Enhance the Level of Trust in Electronic Communication" offers a solution. In this article, Balboni talks about how trust is a huge issue in communicating electronically. To make emailing safer and more efficient for us, he conducts an analysis of using the Electronic Signatures Directive. After balancing the pros and cons of the system recommended by the European legislator. This system is based on the concept of a different type of liability for different types of information provided in the certificates by certification service providers. His findings allow him to, in the end, propose another program quite similar to this.
Although it's not guaranteed that this will build trust up 100%, it certainly is a step in the right direction. With the ease of accessibility of the internet nowadays, it's hard to distinguish what's right and wrong. Taking measures to prevent incorrect information, or fraud to thrive in the digital world can help do this. Email, should therefore, be used in moderation in unveiling certain information. The cons to emailing can still pose a threat.
Source: Balboni, Paolo. "Liability of Certification Service Providers Towards Relying Parties and the Need for a Clear System to Enhance the Level of Trust in Electronic Communication." Information & Communications Technology Law 13.3 (2004): 211-242. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 12 Apr. 2010.
Kipins more recent study minimizes the older study, to state there are eight current tactics. Kipins states that his most recent study found "8 dimensions of influence: Assertiveness, Ingratiation, Rationality, Sanctions, Exchange, Upward Appeals, Blocking, and Coalitions" (Kipins 442).
There are only slight differences with those from his first study that is showcased in the text.
1. Rational Persuasion: trying to convince someone with reason, logic or facts
2. Inspirational Appeals: trying to build enthusiasm by appealing to others' emotions, ideals or values
3. Consultation: getting others to participate in planning, making decisions, and changes
4. Ingratiation: getting someone in a good mood prior to making a request
5. Personal Appeals: referring to friendship and loyalty when making a request
6. Exchange: making express or implied promises and trading favors
7. Coalition Tactics: getting others to support your effort to persuade someone
8. Pressure: demanding compliance or using intimidation threats
9. Legitimating Tactics: basing request on one's authority or right, organizational rules or policies, or express or implied support from superiors
These approaches are ranked in success in ascending order based on the study. These are memorable tactics to use when in the work field, and importance and value can not be underestimated.
Intraorganizational influence tactics: Explorations in getting one's way.
Kipnis, David; Schmidt, Stuart M.; Wilkinson, Ian
Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol 65(4), Aug 1980, 440-452
Kreitner, Robert. Organizational Behavior. 9th ed. Vol. 1. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2010.